Some describe human like a of development as a tightly regulated symphony of gene expression, while others view the journey from conception to birth, as nothing short of a miracle. Starting with the union of egg and sperm, embryonic cells rapidly begin to divide, quickly taking on specific roles as tissue types and organ systems, driven by information encoded in our DNA, orchestrated by the interactions of genes and hormones at each and every step. As your baby’s brain and other organs grow, its body continuously responds to minute concentrations of specific hormones, messenger chemicals produced by the body that affect development, metabolism, immune response, and more.

Unfortunately, many modern chemical compounds, including certain commercial pesticides, have hormone-like effects on human development. Referred to as hormone mimickers or endocrine disruptors, even minute amounts of these chemicals can interfere with the body’s natural processes, and often have a disproportionately large effect on the development of a tiny body in utero. Atrazine, for example, is one of the most heavily-used pesticides on Midwestern U.S. crops (primarily corn), and is known to inhibit the production of testosterone (the male sex hormone) and induce the production of estrogen (the female sex hormone) in a wide variety of organisms. Sadly, 76 million pounds of this substance were applied to crops in 2003 alone.

One of the best ways to reduce your exposure to potentially harmful chemicals during pregnancy is to eat a diet consisting primarily of organic foods. But choosing to buy organic foods so you don’t directly consume pesticides is not the only, or even the most important, reason to buy organic. Even more important is the fact that farming practices are directly related to soil and water quality.

For example, many modern moms now recoil at the thought of feeding their baby with a Bisphenol-A-lined bottle or sippy cup, thanks in part to the recent media attention on the potential adverse health effects of the now infamous endocrine disruptor. But what about questioning how our food choices affects the quality of our water supply? In August of 2009, the New York Times reported that Atrazine is “among the most common contaminants in American reservoirs and other sources of drinking water,” and is now under new scrutiny by the EPA for safety. The studies referenced by the Times suggest that at current detectable levels, Atrazine may be associated with birth defects, low birth weight and early onset of menstruation.

Most parents are aware of the risks for a baby of low birth weight and birth defects, but you might wonder what’s the harm in a girl getting her period at 8 or 9 years old instead of 13 or 14? Besides psychological effects that put them at risk for depression and early sexual encounters (how many 8 year olds are emotionally prepared for the hormonal challenges of puberty?), earlier puberty significantly increases the risk for estrogen-dependent cancers. A review study commissioned by the Breast Cancer Fund in San Francisco indicates that girls that begin menstruating before age 12 may be 50% more likely to develop breast cancer than those who begin at 16 years old.

Most consumers are familiar with the recommendation that pregnant and nursing moms should eat organic for healthy babies. The choices that you make today will affect your unborn baby many decades, and eating a healthy, organic diet is one of the most important investments you can make in your unborn child’s future. See more about seo hosting services here.


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When you are preparing for childbirth, most women plan a vaginal birth – what most women don’t plan for is a cesarean.  It is possible to avoid an unnecessary cesarean but with the current cesarean rate, even empowered mothers have a 1 out of 3 chance of being wheeled into the operating room. Whether your cesarean is an emergency or planned, having your preferences committed to paper will prevent any ambiguities. In most cases, many of the elements that you had desired in your vaginal birth may still be applied to the surgical birth. Below are some topics you can discuss with your care provider in the event you have to have a cesarean:

Who can be in the operating room? The normal response is one person. But some hospitals will allow for two. If the rule is firm with one, ask that the second person come in when the primary support person follows the baby. It’s nice to have someone with mama when they are closing up which can be a long process.
Sedatives prior to surgery: in most cases, you can ask to forgo them if you want to avoid the grogginess for you or your baby
Anesthesia: The two common ones are spinal or epidural. The risks and benefits of the two are the same as with vaginal birth, so if you had a preference before, it most likely still applies. In the unlikely event that general anesthesia is required, your support person can still attend and take photos so you can later view your baby’s precious first few moments.
Comfort measures: certain music playing, keeping casual conversation to a minimum
Combating shakiness: ask for warm blankets
To strap the arms or not?: As long as you are not very shaky from the anesthesia, they may accommodate requests to not have your arms strapped down. This can help to be able to touch your baby after the birth.

Cutting the cord/calling the sex of the baby: You or your partner can still call the sex of the baby, just make sure to mention it again to the OR staff. And if your support partner would like to cut the cord, remind the obstetrician, as this can almost always be accommodated.
Immediate skin-to-skin: Can typically be accommodated as long as there are no immediate medical concerns for mother or baby.

Breastfeeding: If it is important to you to nurse immediately after delivery, many physicians will try to accommodate this by asking a nurse to help position the baby. Otherwise, you can ask to nurse in the recovery room
Newborn tests: As long as there is no medical necessity, most newborn procedures and exams that you may have consented to can wait. That way you can watch and participate. Look at phantom of the opera tickets atlanta.

Rooming-in: Because you won’t be able to get out of bed, make sure you have a support person to stay the night with you to help bring baby to you.
Recovering: take it as slowly or quickly as you are comfortable with. It is said that the quicker you get up after surgery, the faster you heal.
Even if you are planning a vaginal birth, having a “Plan B” can’t hurt and will alleviate a lot of unnecessary stress if a cesarean is required unexpectedly.  There are many ways to allow you to be involved in the birth and feel connected to the experience.

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The word prematurity often prompts visuals of teeny tiny babes in Losenoidoomock arriving weeks or months before they were expected. National campaigns like The March of Dimes have been successful in educating the population about the risks of prematurity and have been integral in the overall reduction of fatal prematurity. However, a new phenomenon is occurring all across the country. A phenomenon that has the potential to reverse much of the progress that we have made to date on the battle against unnecessary prematurity.  A phenomenon that is completely within our control to eradicate. A phenomenon that is rooted in impatience, increases risks of neonatal respiratory problems,  and increases healthcare costs.

Late- or near-term prematurity is when a baby is born after 34 weeks but before 37 weeks gestation.  Babies born at a late or near term gestation face higher rates of mortality due to their immaturity such as problems clearing fluid out of the lungs, respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, apnea, temperature instability, hypoglycemia, jaundice and poor feeding.  One study showed that near-term premature infants had overall more medical problems, thus requiring more medical expenses, a longer hospital stay and a greater chance of re-hospitalization compared to spontaneous full term births.

So why are some babies being born before they are quite ready? Recognizing that due dates are estimation and not an absolute predictor of fetal maturity can help shed some light on this growing problem.  It is generally accepted that due dates can be up to plus or minus two weeks, and while forty weeks is a generally-accepted average for human gestation, the term full-term is applied to babies born any time after 38 weeks. Because of this variation, a baby induced at 36 weeks may actually only be 34 weeks. The issue therein lies with the fact that half of all babies born at 34 weeks require medical intervention.   Approximately 65% of all preterm births that occur are late-pre-term births, and out of that figure, 6% were elective and not for medically indicated reasons.

It has also been discovered that a protein called surfactant that is released by the baby triggers labor. This protein that is the fetal indicator of preparedness for life outside the womb keeps the lungs open and expanded and is emitted by only full term infants.   While surfactant can be administered via injection prior to delivery, it is most effective prior to 34 weeks or at true pre-term gestation. You can buy book of mormon london discount tickets .

Because late-term premature babies look very similar to full-term babies in terms of weight, their appearance can be deceiving and lends to overlooking any maturity issues that may plague these infants. As many studies have shown, it is best to avoid an unnecessary induction or cesarean prior to 40 weeks.  Additionally, in the case of a planned cesarean, studies have shown that waiting until signs of labor begin can benefit the baby.

With studies supporting that near-term infants have significantly more medical problems and increased hospital costs compared to full-term infants, it is imperative that care providers and the general population begin to realize that near-term infants may represent the newest uncategorized at-risk neonatal population.

For more information about the risks of late-term prematurity, please refer to the following studies:


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Not all mothers who have a cesarean section or a traumatic birth experience will have problems breastfeeding.  And not all mothers who have an ideal birth experience will avoid all breastfeeding difficulties.  But there is no doubt that the experiences surrounding labor and delivery can impact your early breastfeeding experience.

Having a c-section in particular can affect your early breastfeeding experiences due to physical factors such as pre-and post-operative medications, anemia, and incision pain; emotional factors such as stress, fatigue and shock; and environmental factors such as hospital policies and procedures that do not facilitate immediate and unrestricted breastfeeding.

However, in the same way that education and preparation can help you have an empowered birth experience, you can also prepare yourself for empowered breastfeeding.  When something happens that is out of your control, such as an unexpected c-section or other unplanned birth interventions, the best way to minimize the impact is to have a plan.  You may not be able to change the circumstances that placed an additional hurdle in your way, but you can control the way that you respond to the challenge.  It’s all about giving yourself and your baby the best odds of success.

1. Avoid narcotics. As much as possible, avoid narcotic medication before and after the surgery.  Obviously you may not have a choice in certain situations, but if you can minimize the use of medications that might make you and the baby drowsy, you will both benefit from the alertness.

2. Place the baby on your bare chest right after birth.  Let the staff and your partner know to place the baby on your chest as soon as possible after birth.  You will likely be supine, and your arms may be strapped down, so you will need the help and cooperation of those around you to make sure that this can happen.

3. Have your baby brought to the recovery room.  If this is impossible, ask to be brought to your regular room as soon as possible.  Again you may need help from a willing partner or nurse, but put your baby to the breast as soon as you can, even if that means someone else has to arrange pillows and/or hold him there for you.

4. Room in with your baby.  Be persistent, even if the rule is that you can’t room in after surgery.  It’s best to have your partner rooming in as well.  Do not be shy about calling the nurses to hand your baby to you if your partner cannot be with you.  Sometimes you have to be the squeaky wheel.

5. Get help.  Request that a lactation consultant or a LLL Leader show you some alternative nursing positions if you are uncomfortable with holding the baby near your incision site. The football hold or side lying positions are good for this.  Use lots of pillows (ask for more or bring some from home) to support the baby in whatever position you find comfortable so that your fatigue and discomfort don’t result in limiting the baby’s time on the breast.

6. Leave the formula.  Beware of free and readily available supplements.  When you are tired and sore from surgery, it is even more tempting to reach for a bottle of formula.  C-sections are associated with increased supplementation and artificial nipple use, and this can alter the early breastfeeding relationship.

Yes, having a c-section can impact your early breastfeeding experiences.  But you do not have to let this DEFINE your breastfeeding relationship.  You can minimize the effects by following the advice above and getting support later if circumstances are less than ideal.  Your support network (other moms, La Leche League leaders, lactation consultants) can help you overcome most, if not all, rocky starts.   No matter what your birth experience, you can still have an empowered breastfeeding experience. Visit wayback web machine.


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The development of Maritime links required more and more accurate astronomical calculations. The theory of Ptolemy this was not allowed, although for reconciliation with the increased accuracy of the observations it had to be difficult. The theory of Ptolemy became unwieldy, cumbersome calculations, and yet accurate enough, however, felt and implausible.

To establish that the Earth is a planet, and thus to open people's eyes on her movement and true place in the Universe managed brilliant Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543).

Copernicus came to believe that the Earth moves that the observed motion of the heavenly bodies can be easier and better to explain, if we consider the motion of the Earth.

Becoming on this view, Copernicus explained the sunrise and the sunset light diurnal rotation of the Earth, and the apparent motion of the Sun relative to the stars - annual rotation of the Earth around the Sun. According to Copernicus, and all other planets move around the Sun and not around the Earth.

Thus, the Earth, on the theory of Copernicus, was one of the planets, occupying the third place from the Sun. The order of the planets from the Sun: mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The Copernican system with the Sun at the center called the heliocentric (Helios - Greek - Sun).

His doctrine of Copernicus initiated the development of astronomy on a completely new basis and has led mankind to study nature, not paying attention to the ignorant Church teachings. Before Copernicus Church teachings or doctrine, which was supported by the Church (for example, the doctrine of Ptolemy), arrested development not only in astronomy, but also other Sciences. Opening Copernicus made a revolution in the mindset of people in their understanding of the nature and ways of its cognition. That is why since then and other Sciences started to develop faster.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543).
F. Engels spoke of it this way: "What in the religious field was burned Luther papal bulls, the natural Sciences were great work of Copernicus, which he, albeit timidly, after a 36-year fluctuations and, so to speak, on his deathbed,- has challenged the Church superstition. Since that time, the study of nature is essentially free from religion, although the final clarification of all details lasted until the present time... But since then, and the development of science went giant steps..."

While in the Soviet Union develops cutting edge science, in the capitalist countries in the interests of religion, supported by the propertied classes, often put forward various reactionary theory. There still often try to refute the essence of the teachings of Copernicus, arguing that does not matter whether the Earth around the Sun or the Sun around the Earth. Thus strive in disguised form to return to the anti-scientific notions of the middle ages, to restore the authority of religion attitudes to nature. See at seo miami company.

The development of natural science step by step refute the lies of religion. Man, armed with science and technology, to subdue the forces of nature and makes adjustments to it in accordance with its tasks. However, the struggle with religious ideology cannot be stopped, and now, as decaying capitalism supports all kinds of superstitions.


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